天天观察+定期筛检 守护肠道健康远离肠癌

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被称之为”第二个大脑”的肠道与身体其他方面的健康,有着密不可分的关系。而住在肠道内的数百兆个小小居民—肠道菌,更是主宰着我们的体内变化。肠道健康与多种疾病相互关连,包含肥胖、忧郁症、阿兹海默氏症、帕金森氏症等,当然还有蝉联多年国人十大癌症之首的大肠癌。

台湾罹患大肠癌的比率高居世界第一,然而其实若能早期发现早期治疗,大肠癌的治愈率可高达90%呢! 其实透过每天简单的排便观察,以及定期的筛检,就能够为肠道健康做好把关,从今天起,养成观察便便的好习惯吧!

健康的排便习惯

大便会受到肠道菌、饮水量以及摄取的食物影响。成年人每天的排便量约200-600克,颜色为黄褐色,条状,表面有些许裂纹,膳食纤维摄取充足,则会浮在水面上,味淡无臭。如果消化功能不佳、或是肠道不健康,排便就会出现异常。排便若是三天少于一次,或是一天大于三次,就有便秘或腹泻的疑虑。可以从最基本的形状及颜色作为肠道健康的评断依据。

形状

颗粒状的大便,代表停留在大肠的时间太久、含水量低,这类型代表平时水分及膳食纤维摄取不够充裕,导致肠道蠕动功能差,粪便停留过久、干燥,进而引起便秘。烂泥状的大便,代表肠道菌分布失衡,或是蛋白质吸收异常所致。黏滞型的大便,代表摄取的食物当中含有太多的油脂、高蛋白,以及精致淀粉类的食物。水状的大便则可能是细菌或是病毒的感染,应就医接受治疗。

颜色

正常的排便颜色应为黄褐色,稍深稍浅皆无大碍,不过若是出现差异较大的颜色时,可能就需要特别注意了! 黑色大便可能是在肠道累积太久,使得接受到的胆汁浓度过高,或是服用铁剂等药物也可能使大便变黑,但这皆是短暂性的表现,如果有长期黑便的现象,可寻求医师帮助,检查确认是否为肠胃道出血。墨绿色的大便,代表肠道细菌作用不足,因肠道内的食物残渣,会被胆汁染成墨绿色,再经过细菌作用转变成为黄色,如果排便为墨绿色,代表肠道细菌作用不佳,或是消化不良、腹泻等引起。灰白色的大便常见于胆结石的患者,因胆结石导致胆管阻塞,以至于胆汁无法排到肠道中所引起。鲜红色的大便可能是痔疮或是肛裂造成。而暗红色的大便则有可能是肠癌,若长期有血便现象应就医求诊。

 

定期筛检,远离大肠癌

除了每日观察排便外,尚可透过定期筛检作为辅助,帮助肠道健康的维持。台湾“健康属”最新癌症资料统计指出,五十岁以上罹患肠癌的机率明显提升,因此健保补助五十岁以上未满七十五岁的民众,每两年一次粪便潜血检查,民众可以多加利用。大肠内的肿瘤或息肉,可能因粪便的摩擦而出血,沾附在粪便表面,有时不易用肉眼察觉,透过定量免疫法粪便潜血检查,可以检测出早期的大肠癌或息肉,阻断癌症后须发展,减少二到三成的大肠癌死亡率。然而粪便潜血检查有诸多不方便之处,包含粪便的搜集、保存、送检等,造成检测意愿降低,近年,台湾亦引进了EZ Detect居家粪便潜血检测试纸,简单快速又方便的检测,提高大众接受度。不过,只要是检测,都可能出现伪阳性或的状况,因此不论是一般的粪便潜血检测,或是家用试纸检测,若有出现阳性反应,都应前往医院做更进一步的复检确诊喔!

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